San Francisco's sewer system master plan is being designed to protect the city's sewer system against the rising tides of the next 30 years. One short-term option is to retrofit outfalls with duckbill valves that protect against backflow. Photo: Tideflex Technologies
Carollo Engineers examined local surface water supplies, irrigation demands, and sea-level rise as part of Santa Barbara, Calif.'s water supply planning study. The study looked at precipitation trends to determine whether to modify surface water supply management to accommodate increased variability brought by climate change. At this time, Santa Barbara will continue current operations management while tracking precipitation patterns for future planning. Photo: City of Santa Barbara, Calif.
San Francisco flooding on the rise This chart maps historical monthly mean higher high water (MHHW) levels relative to the San Francisco city datum and estimated 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections of future high tides. Long before the projections of even higher tides exceed the weir levels, flooding will occur. For a larger version of this graph, visit the “article links” page under “resources” at www.pwmag.com. Source: Carollo Engineers