Ahead of the flow

Smoke signals A typical smoke test encompasses a small portion of a sewer line. Areas showing inflow and infiltration can pop up anywhere along the system. Source: V&A Consulting Engineers

Smoke pours from a residential area drain illegally connected to a sanitary sewer system. When the yard becomes flooded, the stormwater is drained directly into the sanitary sewer. This is a direct inflow location. Photo: Oro Loma Sanitary District

Smoke from a below-grade sanitary sewer manhole structure showed pipe defects near a stormwater drainage channel. Further inspection revealed cracks and defects in structure. Photo: V&A Consulting Engineers

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