City arborists and public works departments are the first lines of defense, should invasive insects get past the protective measures of the USDA, Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service, and Plant Protection and Quarantine. Once the insects escape urban areas and enter forests, containment and eradication are no longer possible. The problem then becomes a costly case of disease management and pest control.

Other threats to watch for in 2007:

  • Mosquitoes (and the West Nile virus)
  • Asian longhorned beetle (exotic pest threatening hardwood trees, including maple, birch, elm, willow, and chestnut)
  • Diaprepes root weevil (native to the Caribbean; attacks ornamental plants and other crops, especially citrus).