Accessible entrance and ramp standards
In my last post, I discussed
the viability of an alternate entrance and a ramp for the entrance. This time, I am giving you the actual 2010 ADA regulations on this topic.
Please note the advisories — they are one of the best additions to the 2010 Standards.
These advisories give you a greater understanding of the logic behind the
standards. Use them in your design processes and retrofits. (Next time I will
include pictures of solutions and ideas.)
State and local government facilities must follow the requirements of the 2010
Standards, including both the Title II regulations at 28 CFR 35.151 and the
2004 ADAAG at 36 CFR part 1191, appendices B and D. In the few places
where requirements between the two differ, the requirements of 28 CFR 35.151 (2010
ADA) prevail. Click here for more info.
Entrances standard: 28 CFR 35.151 New Construction and Alterations
“ … (b) Alterations (includes alterations in historic properties, path
of travel, and primary function)
(iv) Duty to provide accessible features in the event of disproportionality
… (B) In choosing
which accessible elements to provide, priority should be given to those
elements that will provide the greatest access, in the following order—
(1) An accessible entrance;
(2) An accessible
route to the altered area;
(3) At least one accessible restroom for each sex or a single
(4) Accessible telephones;
Accessible drinking fountains; and
(6) When possible, additional accessible elements such as parking,
storage, and alarms.”
Ramp standards: 2004 ADAAG 405 Ramps
“405.1 General. Ramps on accessible
routes shall comply with 405.
EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, aisle
ramps adjacent to seating and not serving elements required to be on an
accessible route shall not be required to comply with 405.
405.2 Slope. Ramp runs shall have a
running slope not steeper than 1:12.
EXCEPTION: In existing sites,
buildings, and facilities, ramps shall be permitted to have running slopes
steeper than 1:12 complying with Table 405.2 where such slopes are necessary
due to space limitations.
Advisory 405.2 Slope. To accommodate the widest range of users,
provide ramps with the least possible running slope and, wherever possible,
accompany ramps with stairs for use by those individuals for whom distance
presents a greater barrier than steps, e.g., people with heart disease or
405.3 Cross Slope. Cross slope of ramp runs shall not be steeper
Advisory 405.3 Cross Slope. Cross slope is the slope of the surface
perpendicular to the direction of travel. Cross slope is measured the same way
as slope is measured (i.e., the rise over the run).
405.4 Floor or Ground
or ground surfaces of ramp runs shall comply with 302. Changes in level other
than the running slope and cross slope are not permitted on ramp runs.
405.5 Clear Width. The clear width of
a ramp run and, where handrails are provided, the clear width between handrails
shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.
EXCEPTION: Within employee work
areas, the required clear width of ramps that are a part of common use
circulation paths shall be permitted to be decreased by work area equipment
provided that the decrease is essential to the function of the work being
405.6 Rise. The rise for any
ramp run shall be 30 inches (760 mm) maximum.
405.7 Landings. Ramps shall have
landings at the top and the bottom of each ramp run. Landings shall comply with
Advisory 405.7 Landings. Ramps that do not have level landings at changes
in direction can create a compound slope that will not meet the requirements of
this document. Circular or curved ramps continually change direction.
Curvilinear ramps with small radii also can create compound cross slopes and
cannot, by their nature, meet the requirements for accessible routes. A level
landing is needed at the accessible door to permit maneuvering and
simultaneously door operation.
Figure 405.7 Ramp Landings
405.7.1 Slope. Landings shall
comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.
EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than
1:48 shall be permitted.
405.7.2 Width. The landing clear
width shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run leading to the landing.
405.7.3 Length. The landing clear
length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) long minimum.
405.7.4 Change in
that change direction between runs at landings shall have a clear landing 60
inches (1525 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.
405.7.5 Doorways. Where doorways are
located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by 404.2.4
and 404.3.2 shall be permitted to overlap the required landing area.
405.8 Handrails. Ramp runs with a
rise greater than 6 inches (150 mm) shall have handrails complying with 505.
EXCEPTION: Within employee work
areas, handrails shall not be required where ramps that are part of common use
circulation paths are designed to permit the installation of handrails
complying with 505. Ramps not subject to the exception to 405.5 shall be
designed to maintain a 36 inch (915 mm) minimum clear width when handrails are
405.9 Edge Protection. Edge protection
complying with 405.9.1 or 405.9.2 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs
and at each side of ramp landings.
1. Edge protection shall
not be required on ramps that are not required to have handrails and have sides
complying with 406.3.
2. Edge protection shall
not be required on the sides of ramp landings serving an adjoining ramp run or
3. Edge protection shall
not be required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical drop-off of 1/2
inch (13 mm) maximum within 10 inches (255 mm) horizontally of the minimum
landing area specified in 405.7.
405.9.1 Extended Floor
or Ground Surface. The floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall
extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a handrail
complying with 505.
Advisory 405.9.1 Extended Floor or Ground
Surface. The extended surface prevents wheelchair casters and crutch
tips from slipping off the ramp surface.
Figure 405.9.1 Extended Floor or Ground Surface Edge Protection
405.9.2 Curb or Barrier. A curb or barrier shall be provided that prevents
the passage of a 4 inch (100 mm) diameter sphere, where any portion of the
sphere is within 4 inches (100 mm) of the finish floor or ground surface.
Figure 405.9.2 Curb or Barrier Edge Protection
405.10 Wet Conditions. Landings subject to wet conditions shall be
designed to prevent the accumulation of water.”
Take care to study these carefully. Also train your
contractors on the importance of constructing according to the Standards
Until next time, good luck!