The use of computer analysis and modeling helps bioinformatics researchers—such as the centers in North Carolina and New Jersey that recently received EPA grants—identify, predict, and understand biological processes, and determine how such processes can affect public health. Source: Research Center for Environmental Bioinformatics and Computational Toxicology at the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey

1969 The ARPANET—linking computers at Stanford, UCSB, University of Utah, and UCAL—is created

1986 The term “genomics”—describing the discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genes—is coined

1987 The National Center for Biotechnology Information is established

2001 A report by the U.S. National Research Council recommends that the EPA incorporate the use of bioinformatics in identifying and assessing waterborne pathogens

2002 EPA opens the National Center for Computational Toxicology